The Rise of Third Party Solar O&M Providers

Welcome to the Solar O&M Insider, the first podcast series dedicated to solar PV operations, maintenance, and asset management. This series is brought to you by Alectris, a global solar asset care innovation firm. I’m Glenna Wiseman of Identity3, your host.

This episode features solar industry professional Cedric Brehaut of SoliChamba. Cedric is the well-known speaker and author of the industry’s most comprehensive reports on PV monitoring and O&M markets. These reports are published by GTM Research.

We also welcome return guest Laks Sampath of Alectris who’s track record includes extensive solar O&M experience.

The rise of third party solar O&M providers podcast includes:

  • Global rise of third party solar O&M service providers
  • Build vs service models in the maturing O&M market
  • Refining definitions for solar operations and maintenance
  • Major trends shaping the solar O&M market
  • Competition heating up in solar O&M market
  • Delivering value to solar investors and owners
  • O&M in emerging solar markets
  • Building and Airlines – Market models applicable to solar O&M
  • Insights into November 2016 solar O&M report

Alectris_Rise_of_third_party_solar_TwitterFull Transcript
Welcome to the Solar O&M Insider, the first podcast series dedicated to solar PV operations, maintenance, and asset management. This series is brought to you by Alectris, a global solar asset care innovation firm. I’m Glenna Wiseman of Identity3, your host.

This episode features solar industry professional Cedric Brehaut of SoliChamba. Cedric is the well-known speaker and author of the industry’s most comprehensive reports on PV monitoring and O&M markets. These reports are published by GTM Research.

We also welcome return guest Laks Sampath of Alectris who’s track record includes extensive solar O&M experience.

Welcome to the show, gentleman.
Cedric: Thanks, Glenna. Thanks for having me.
Laks: Thanks, Glenna.

Glenna: Cedric, I’ve sat in on many of your presentations in the industry and always been incredibly impressed by the kind of knowledge you bring forth in the industry, but I have not heard how you got started with all of these reports you do covering monitoring O&M and asset management. Can you give us some insights into your story?

Cedric: Sure, Glenna. Actually, it started when I was at SunEdison, and I was there before it became a bit of a questionable thing on anybody’s resume. At the time, it was great to be there. And I was there from 2007 to 2011 in the group that was dealing with asset management and O&M before it became such a popular topic. And as I worked there, I was only struggling because there was no market information from independent sources. And so there was just no way to know who the competitors were, what the market size was and what the trends were.

So when I left and started my own business, I decided that maybe it was a good idea to do that and we start to teach them research at the time and their response was this is a good idea. Why don’t you write it? And if we like it, we’ll publish it. And fortunately for me, they did like it and they started publishing the first report and that led into another. And all the topic’s been increasingly a focus of the industry, for the industry, and so these reports have been more popular. And I’m hoping to keep doing them for a long time forward as the industry continues to value the topic.

Glenna: You certainly feel the huge gap in terms of the industry’s research knowledge. And just because I am curious, could you tell us what the name of your company means?

Cedric: Yes. So just to keep people confused, I am originally French and my company is Spanish, a Spanish name. It’s two words put together, Sol for sun and Chamba, which in certain parts of Latin America, is a slang word for work. So SunWork was already taken, but SoliChamba was not, and I think it sounds good.

Glenna: And given the fact that you do global reports, I think it turned out to be sort of prophetic in terms of what you would end up doing, right?

Cedric: Absolutely.

Global Rise of Third Party Solar O&M Service Providers
Glenna: Okay. So in your last report, which is a big, long name, Megawatt-Scale PV O&M and Asset Management 2015-2020, you analyzed 76 vendors, managing nearly 41 gigawatts of PV utility scale plants. This report showed independent service providers or ISPs who were once marginal players, now capturing significant levels of market share related to O&M and asset management services. I was interested to see that your last report had competition coming from what you are now calling ASPs. Could you describe the key market players that you’re seeing in the solar O&M and asset management space, including ISPs and ASPs?

Cedric: Yes. And first of all, I’ll start with definitions because some of these are made up words that I created. So ISP is more of a standard acronym for Independent Service Provider. ASP I use as Affiliated Service Provider. And that’s the best word I’ve found to express what the concept is. The concept is you have organizations that are active in other parts of the value chain at solar. Maybe they’re developers, maybe they’re EPCs, maybe they’re inverter manufacturers or maybe a combination of these things. Maybe they’re IPPs. And they have a service business. And they’ve separated this service business enough that they really promoting it as a standalone entity.

And in this case, I call that an affiliated service provider. Because they’re a service provider, they’re not fully independent and somehow affiliated, but they’re trying to position themselves as an ISP. So it’s kind of a wannabe ISP but not fully independent because they have a business tied to another entity that does either development, ISP, etc. or inverter manufacturer. So that’s how I define the different categories.

And it is true that I’ve seen in the 2020, 2015-2020 report, big progress from ISPs and ASPs as opposed to before where ISPs were smaller and ASPs were fewer, not really as separated from the core business, whatever it was, EPC development, etc.

In terms of the large players, the key players, we keep seeing large developers, large vertically-integrated firms like First Solar, SunEdison, which is kind of in limbo right now, but we’ll see if and how the service business goes through the transition that they’re in. Sun Power is another big one. And then you have inverter manufacturers that are increasingly involved in O&M some of them at least. SMA has been very active, Schneider Electric very active in Europe, and then a Spanish firm, Ingeteam, has been active as well in certain markets like, say, in Italy.

Then you have large EPC companies, Belectric in Europe and then sometimes they have separately branded divisions for O&M like Swinerton has this company called SOLV in the US that has been very aggressively going for a third party business.

And then there’s the ISPs, the independent companies, and what I see is that they’re more local to specific markets. Most of them are specialized in one market. Some of them have a crossover in different European countries, but usually, it doesn’t go beyond Europe. In that regard, I would say Alectris is a bit of an exception and so maybe Laks wants to emphasize on that. But overall, that’s how I would say that the landscape is laid out.

Glenna: I know you have some examples of the ASP model in your report. Can you give us maybe an example of one of those companies?

Cedric: Yeah, absolutely. So there’s different examples. I’ll say the most typical example is in Europe where you had EPCs and developers that saw a reduction in activity, because as you know, most European markets have slowed down significantly when it comes to new development and new construction. And so these firms separated their O&M business so that it would stand on its own. Part of the reason was well, in case the EPC or developer parent goes bankrupt, there’s still a standalone O&M business that can continue because this is recurring revenue. That was one of the drivers in Europe.

So firms like that in Europe, for example, firms with big service divisions at the time, meteocontrol was owned by a developer, SAG Solarstrom, and they separated their O&M business and there’s now a company called Raising Power. And so this is a typical example of ASP. And now the line is being blurred between ASP and ISP because there is really no solar development from the parent. The parent has pretty much disappeared. So there’s a bit of a blurred line in this case.

In the US, I think the most striking example is Swinerton that has SOLV business that is really focused on O&M and has been gaining a lot of traction doing O&M for plants that were not built by their affiliated EPC.

Glenna: So Cedric, you just mentioned that Alectris is a bit of an anomaly, if you will, in the industry. Laks, do you want to kind of elaborate on how you see where Alectris stands in the market?

Laks: Like Cedric was saying, ISPs tend to be localized. And one of the things that is unique about Alectris is we’re actually a global company. I kind of used the old terms in terms of the British Empire. That used to be the land where the sun never set. In fact, Alectris is one such company where the sun never sets on us simply because our operation center is in Greece. We have operation centers in India and then the US. And between these three, we pretty much cover all of the globe.

I’ll give you an example. We have plants in Georgia. They wake up around 6 a.m. their time, 7:00, which means it’s still 3:00, 4:00 in the morning for me. And I’m not watching that. And a lot of times, by the time I wake up at 5:30, Greece has already dispatched somebody, one of the service providers, to go take care of an issue that they saw first thing in the morning. So we are able to manage plants throughout the world without any disruption.

Build vs Service Models in the Maturing O&M Market
Glenna: Thank you, Laks. I want to go back to Cedric because even though you referenced a particular example in which the EPC side of the business was no longer building, in most cases the EPC side of the ASP configuration if I’m understanding it correctly, is still building. So how do ASPs in general affiliated with large EPC portfolios, how do they maintain the same level of objectivity found with truly independent ISPs? And we’re certainly open to however you see this. I mean, there may be a bit of a prejudice here because Alectris is a true ISP, but I just wanted to see how do you see this objectivity factor on the ASP front.

Cedric: Well, that’s a great question. And, honestly, not all firms are equal in that regard. There are different firms that have different culture. I would say that EPC culture is very different from a service culture. So for an EPC organization should be successful at creating what is essentially a spinoff, whether it’s still attached to the company or not, but it is a bit of a spinoff business for O&M service. If they want to do it right, they have to have a different culture within that O&M organization as they do within EPC because EPC is project based and O&M is an ongoing service-based business, so fundamentally different. Some firms do it successfully, others don’t. And that’s what we’ve seen in Europe, for example, where some of the EPCs were successful in insuring the satisfaction of their customers in doing a good job and they retain those clients while others didn’t do a good job and then investors chose other providers.

Now back to your core question of the level of independence, it really depends on the culture if there’s a strong enough culture of service. It depends if there’s enough separation between the EPC or development business and O&M business that the service organization really works for the owner of the plant and has no qualms even uncovering issues that may be detrimental to the EPC parent or developer parent, for example, if there’s a warranty claim.

Also what matters is the diversification of their portfolio. If you take an ASP-type O&M provider and 95% of their revenue comes from projects that were developed by or built by the EPC or developer parent, it’s a very different situation compared to an ASP where they may have more than half of their O&M portfolio that comes from third parties. So all of these factors matter. And practically speaking, when an owner chooses a vendor, they should consider those criteria.

Glenna: Great insights, Cedric. Laks, let’s hear from you. Because you’ve been on both sides of this fence, so to speak. You’ve worked on the installer side executing solar O&M and now you’re on the ISP side. Why did you move to the ISP side and what kinds of trend lines and insights related to third party providers in the future do you see?

Laks: I got my start in the solar industry with an EPC company back in 2002. And three or four years into my job, one of the first things I realized is there is nothing called a customer service department or a customer care department. So I set up the very first customer care department, as we used to call operations and maintenance. And then I started to recruit field service people to come in and go fix issues that we had in the field. One of the hardest parts was getting these field service people. I was under the impression that my installing guys would love to go out and do troubleshooting and fixing things. As Cedric was alluding to this, EPCs are essentially system builders. It’s a different mindset in order to do ongoing plant operations and plant maintenance activities.

So that was the most difficult thing. And so now what we’re seeing is more and more people are in the plant maintenance activity which is boots on the ground. So it’s become a little bit easier to find such people because now in the past an EPC will consider a maintenance side of this business to be more of a cost center because they were not making money on that, right?

And the other thing that I want to point out is if you notice, I kind of shy away from labeling anything O&M simply because the industry, when you say O&M, they’re thinking somebody in the field fixing stuff. I tend to call this more plant operations and plant maintenance activities, because they’re very distinct activities. I know Cedric has a lot to say on that subject as well and I’m sure he’ll cover that somewhere along the line, but that’s where the segmentation is for me, is plant operation’s very different from plant maintenance, and so they require a completely different skill set doing EPC.

Given the number of installations, and also the uncertainty in the market, ITC coming, ITC going, so on and so forth, I felt that there was enough of a critical mass of installations that were actually not being taken care of properly and so I figured an ISP kind of a model was the next thing to happen. So about five years ago, I started to switch to that world and started looking at it more from an ISP perspective.

Refining Definitions for Solar Operations and Maintenance
Glenna: Cedric, Laks sort of thrown down the gauntlet a little bit on definitions. So if you’d like to chime in now on how you define some of these definitions that Laks just talked about, we’d love to hear from you.

Cedric: Yeah. And I agree with Laks regarding the peer separation between operations versus maintenance. Those are two very different functions that need to work very closely together. And often times they are combined under the same responsibility and that’s why the terminology of O&M is so prevalent. But clearly, the M for maintenance is mostly on-site activities as opposed to the O, operations, relies a lot on technology and processes and in most cases can be done remotely. So those are fundamental differences. And companies that are good at O may not be good at M and vice versa. Now a lot of companies call themselves O&M when many are actually more focused on the M which is often referred to as boots on the ground without any judgment of this particular aspect. It’s essential, but it doesn’t have the same optical energy and expertise I mentioned as the O for operations. And I think, increasingly, especially for large plants and for a large portfolio, operations have become more important and a bigger area of differentiation between vendors.

Glenna: Laks, did you have anything else you wanted to add there?

Laks: No, absolutely. I mean, I think this is something that the industry is coming to grips with. And if you want to reduce the maintenance cost, plant operations become the most critical piece or cog in the wheel.

Major Trends Shaping the Solar O&M Market
Glenna: Cedric, let’s go back a little bit to our crystal ball if you will and talk about and see how you see major trends shaping the market either for or against ISPs, ASPs, third party O&M and asset management providers.

Cedric: Sure. I would say that the biggest thing we can be grateful for is that there’s been more awareness on these topics of O&M and asset management and there’s been more focus on that from the investors, from the developers and from EPCs as well. So the entire industry is putting focus on it. And that helps pretty much all the vendors. The increased scale and density, particularly in markets there like the US where there’s continued growth and very strong growth and in some of the emerging markets in Latin America as well, for example, that increased scale and density helps the vendors because the more plants you have in a given territory, the more efficient you can become in serving these plants and the more you can optimize your costs.

I would say something that is helping independent providers, helping ISPs, and to a degree ASPs as well, it helps anyone that really pursues third-party plant operations and maintenance. The big factor is there’s more and more plants that are exiting their initial warranty. Typically, O&M contracts are tied to a certain period of time that often matches the initial warranties. And when the warranties are gone, there usually comes a time when the owner has a choice of either extending the contract with the initial provider, often times the EPC or the developer, and they now have the option of switching to someone else which can be an ISP, which can be an ASP.

So this is really a clear opportunity and I think it is going to increase. Well, mathematically, it is going to increase because as the number of new plants has been increasing these last few years, you take that same growth curve and you shift it by two to five years, depending on the length of the warranty, and then you have warranty exits that follow that same growth curve. So I think these factors are definitely positive for independent vendors in particular.

Competition Heating up in Solar O&M Market
Now there’s also a little bit of a headwind because you see that more and more EPCs and developers have a desire to do O&M and inverter companies as well. So I think the competition is heating up. And while O&M may not have been that attractive a few years ago, there were a few independent companies that were already seeing this as a core business for them and then the ECP developers were kind of doing it because they had to.

We’re in a different situation now where these companies, the EPCs and the developers, more of them are seeing it as a business they want to grow. And so they’re going to be competing. They’re going to be either competing directly or through these ASP structures that we mentioned earlier. And we have an advantage they can bundle services and they can benefit from scale because they have a bit of a captive pipeline of plants that they’re building or developing.

So the fight is just beginning I would say. Ultimately I think the winner is going to be the investors, and the owners because they have more choices and they have vendors competing to offer the best service at the best price. Hopefully, we don’t go too low on price where the service starts to degrade, but that’s a different topic altogether that we can spend another hour talking about.

Delivering Value to Solar Investors and Owners
Glenna: I think you’re moving naturally to the next kind of point of view that we wanted to cover which is from the investor / owner side. We’ve been addressing the conversation so far mostly from the ISP or ASP’s side. And now I’d like us to talk a little bit about how these trends and offerings being developed by ISPs, and I guess we can include ASPs, deliver value for solar PV plant owners. So maybe you could give us, Cedric, let’s start with you and ask you to address what kinds of value do you see this ISP third party provider model providing to the owners and investors in the plants?

Cedric: Well, I think the first value is choice because talking to different owners and investors, maybe up to two years ago and maybe even last year, they wouldn’t have even looked for an alternative provider, an alternate provider to the EPC. They would have said, “Hey, I’m buying a plant. The EPC’s going to be the O&M and that’s it. It’s simple, it works.” Now I think it’s more of an open question and I see a decoupling between the procurement of the plant and the procurement of the O&M.

There’s still an advantage for the EPC because they can offer let’s say one throat to choke type of service where there’s not going to be any finger pointing, particularly when it comes to warranties, so they can sell that as an advantage. They know the plant well because they designed it and built it. But at the same time, ISPs and ASPs are increasingly competitive in those situations, especially when there’s an RFP process with competitive bids.

So from investors, they get the choice and they get increased competition, meaning that providers are really going to fight to offer the best deal. And for now, investors are gaining from it. I think there’s a risk that there could be also a downside to that if the competition goes “too far” and providers go to service levels that are not sufficient to protect the asset and to ensure its performance. I don’t think we’ve gone there yet, but we’re certainly seeing price levels, especially in the utility scale segment, that are a little worrisome and where one might wonder if the budgets are sufficient. That would be my concern.

O&M in Emerging Solar Markets
Glenna: We are all so blessed to be in this incredibly dynamic industry. And as I think about it, some of the global trends related to EPC and O&M/asset management, and I realize I’m putting a bunch of functionality into one sentence, I see places like emerging solar markets where the investment group, and we saw this in Jordan with a very major Arabia One Solar funded by the International World, IWF, wanted the O&M in from the very beginning to increase the bankability of this plant in the long run.

So I see that we’ve got a lot of variables here. And I’m sure that you see a tremendous number of variables when you’re looking out on this landscape, Cedric. Do you see that as something that’s going to be a continuing trend in the industry, particularly in emerging markets?

Cedric: Yes, I think so. These emerging markets are leveraging the experience of more mature markets that have faced similar issues before. And that’s particularly true for the Middle East where often times the entities that issues these RFPs or auctions are hiring the services of consultants from Europe and so they leverage the experience. And they are aware of the importance of O&M right from the start.

Now there’s challenges in some of these regions as well because they have a very specific environmental condition that may create more challenges and that may cause budget differences and particularly desert conditions. There’s not one desert. There’s many deserts with different types of sand and how sticky it is and all of that. So they’re facing their own challenges, but at the same time, they can leverage the experience that was accumulated in Europe and in other parts of the world.

And I think there’s maybe a little bit less of that aspect in Latin America, but certainly, we see a lot of the same players that are active in Latin America that were either active in Europe or in the US. So there’s a global knowledge on TV that is benefiting these new markets.

Glenna: I don’t think that that there’s any standardization in terms of integrating O&M objectives or initiatives or qualifications in these auctions in other parts of the world. At the Intersolar NA panel where we covered Latin America, several of the speakers, these were not included in the auctions in Mexico or some of the ones in Latin America. I definitely think that’s an area that could be addressed more fully.

Cedric: Yes, yes. And with these market mechanisms, auctions are increasingly popular. And from that standpoint, the government entities who issue the auctions don’t really care about O&M, what they’re buying is a bid price. And the people who take the risk are the investors because if they bid a certain price and the developer of EPC underestimated budgets tied to O&M, then it’s the project that’s going to face profitability issues down the road. So it’s really in the hands of investors to do the right due diligence and make sure that they have the right budgets and the right providers.

Glenna: And certainly the sort of race to the bottom in terms of price is being…That’s one that we could really spend an hour on I would think.

Cedric: Absolutely. With these PPA prices and bids that we see, it becomes extremely challenging to fit in an O&M budget that has enough of the core components. Plus, in a lot of these new markets, there’s uncertainties related to specific labor issues, because the labor is just not there yet, qualified labor. So I would say that companies that make those bids have to make assumptions on what labor cost is going to be, what labor productivity is going to be, and what certain specific environmental conditions are going to be as well. We can hope that they made the right assumptions, but I think we’ll see some players that others didn’t. And it’ll be an interesting topic to watch how it evolves in the next few years and how it turns into an opportunity for independent providers to take some of those assets later in their life.

Building and Airlines – Market Models Applicable to Solar O&M
Glenna: So let’s go back to Laks and talk a little bit, maybe more US-centric again because we’ve been traveling the globe here. Laks, give us some insights, from your point of view, on how you see the ISP or third-party provider model helping plant owners and/or maybe not being as competitive.

Laks: It’s a very interesting question and Cedric touched upon a lot of the things that I wanted to say and I tend to agree with him on this overall shift in the market. I do want to kind of compare and contrast an existing industry to what we’re going through right now, right? So let’s look at the building industry, building industry meaning people that are building either malls or office complexes and stuff like that and compare that with similar asset managers like myself.

Interestingly, there’s a lot of similarity between these two industries. And developer, it involves developers, it involves investors, it involves EPCs and involves somebody else that I’ll come to in a little bit. So it gets financed, it gets developed, it gets financed, and the EPC comes in, builds this building, whether it’s an office complex or an apartment complex or it is a mall, let’s say, right? Once that is done, yes, these EPCs give warranties, but guess what? Once the building is done and it’s handed over to the owner, there is somebody called a facilities management company that comes in and takes care of the building. And the warranties are all administered by this facilities management company. This is where the ISPs and the solar industry need to play a part. And this is where they are in a much better position to play the part in, simply because EPCs are build and move on. The core competency, like I talked about earlier, is not in troubleshooting and warranty maintenance and so on and so forth.

So in a building, let’s say an HVAC goes out. If the HVAC goes out, the owner doesn’t go after the EPC that built the building. The facilities management company addresses that directly with the Carrier or the Trane, whoever’s equipment it is. Similarly, we in the ISP side or the ASP folks will now deal with the inverter manufacturer or the tracker manufacturer to address issues or the module manufacturer to address issues.

The overall building industry, the way it deals with warranties, is if the paint peels, then they go to the EPC and say the paint’s peeling who then gets all of the painting subcontractor that did the work for him and takes care of it. So similarly, the asset managers are the people that really need to be addressing the overall plant operations. And they’re the ones that like facilities management companies and building management companies report back into the owners on the revenue side, on what got replaced, whether the HVAC equipment got replaced or in our side it’s inverter.

So the key to all of this is to be able to provide performance guarantees. And really the operations part is the one that I would like for the industry to start concentrating on because that’s where you can really identify what the issue is, get to the root cause, and simply shoot a work order to the boots on the ground or the maintenance side of the business to go address specific issues.

So a little bit more budget on the operations side will actually reduce the overall maintenance cost. I’ll give you an example. We just commissioned. It was built by a large conglomerate at 2.3 megawatts in Wisconsin. We were the ones that commissioned the project. We also monitor the project and we also have the operations and plant maintenance contract. So what this allowed for this customer to do is to hold the EPC’s feet to the fire and also our feet to the fire because, guess what, we commissioned the plant. If we come back and say, well, this plant wasn’t built right, we don’t have such excuses. We have to say this plant is according to what was designed and so we can provide those performance guarantees. That’s where ISPs and ASPs can really provide value to an investor.

Glenna: I think any young industry that can find a model that has worked itself out in a more mature industry to emulate and to take the strength from and apply to the young industry, I think that’s a good thing. Your analogy to the building facilities manager model I think is an interesting one. Cedric, do you have any thoughts on that?

Cedric: I think that down the road, I agree that we’ll probably get to a similar state of the industry where there’s a clear separation between the EPC and the service piece. We’re still right now in an industry that’s maturing. And what we’re seeing is EPCs and developers that have a bit of an identity crisis. And maybe they want to be both. And I think that’s why originally they wanted to be both but they wanted to do it with one organization. And now they want to do both, but they realize that these are separate enough that you need to have a different business. And so that’s why we’re seeing ASPs.

So I wouldn’t be surprised if in the next few years we saw a clearer separation between the EPCs and their service businesses, at least the ones that are serious about it. And so then you now have a competition between ASPs and ISPs. And I think this is a healthier space. And really, the difference between ASPs and ISPs become whether they are affiliated or not to another type of organization. But if they grew to a point where they have more third party business than business derived from their EPC affiliate, then the line is very blurred between what’s an ASP and what’s an ISP.

I like to take the example of airlines. Many airlines have plane maintenance activities and often times they maintain each other’s planes. And I think we will get to those scenarios in the future where the maintenance and the operations in maintenance businesses are separated enough from EPC and development that they become their own business and they can work with different technologies and even with competitors of their parent company.

Glenna: So whether building or airplanes, we see the scale of the industry and the sheer volume of the industry driving a maturation process.

Cedric: Yes, I would say clearly a maturation and clearly towards service being separate from construction.

Insights into November 2016 Solar O&M Report
Glenna: So Cedric, we understand that even now you are starting to work on your 2016, what you’ve called a refresh of your O&M report that’s due out in November. Will it be coming out through GTM and do you have some insights that you can offer us now?

Cedric: It will be coming out through GTM and November is the target. So we call it a refresh, but pretty much it’s an all new report because things change so much in this industry from one year to the next that there’s almost no commonality between the previous report and the new one. So I’m starting the process of collecting information from a lot of different vendors. I’ll be collecting interviews as well and refreshing all the market data. So it’s a brand new work that’ll be coming out.

I don’t have a lot of insights yet, but my instinct tells me that we will continue to see the same trend of ASPs and ISPs taking a bigger share of this business and of the focus on O&M continuing to increase for the industry and fortunately or unfortunately, depending on your perspective, I think we’ll continue to see price pressure.

Glenna: Cedric, I’m assuming that you’re going to be at the upcoming Solar Power International show. If there’s anything you’d like to alert us to now, please let us know that. And also, how can our listeners contact you? Where can they find you?

Cedric: Oh, they can find me at Solar Power International, that I’ll be a roaming, floating electron at the show. So I may be hard to catch there. So the best way to contact me is to go to my website which I think will probably give our audience the details, too. Go to my website, send a message there, or you can also send me an e-mail to contact me as well. I think we can send an e-mail as a follow up.

Glenna: Everyone that is at And Laks, thank you for joining us today. We appreciate the support Alectris lends to this insider’s view of the Solar PV O&M industry. I’m Glenna Wiseman, your host.

The Solar O&M Insider Podcast Series is brought to you by Alectris at